There are three basic types of flour – white, brown and wholemeal, and bread made from it is usually described using the same terms.
Bread is also available in a whole range of shapes and sizes, crusty or soft crusted, wrapped or unwrapped, sliced or unsliced.
- White bread is made from flour that contains only the endosperm of the wheat grain (about 75% of the whole grain).
- Wholemeal bread is made from the whole of the wheat grain with nothing taken away. Wholewheat is another name for wholemeal.
- Brown bread is made from flour from which some bran and wheatgerm is removed (it uses about 85% of the whole grain).
- Soft grain bread is made from white flour with extra grains of softened rye and wheat to increase the fibre content by 30% compared with standard white bread.
- Sandwich loaves can be white or brown bread. They are baked in tins and have a flat top, giving even and rectangular slices.
- A cottage loaf has two round sections, one on top of the other. It is believed to date back to Roman times when it was invented to make the most of the height of the oven.
There are a huge range of speciality breads available, originating from different cultures, e.g. pitta, naan, chapatti, ciabatta, bagels, soda bread and baguettes.